New Year's holidays - this is the time of events with a massive stay of people. Fire statistics show that it is during the New Year period that the peak of their growth occurs. And only strict compliance with the requirements of fire safety rules will help to avoid injuries, injuries, and also to meet the New Year more safely.
Special responsibility is placed on the administration of the facilities where the New Year events will take place.
The head of the facility in the preparation, as well as during the New Year holidays and other events with a massive stay of people, must fulfill the following conditions:
RULES OF RULES CONTAINING REQUIREMENTS OF FIRE SAFETY (link to the Russian Emergencies Ministry website)
(We suggest to get more complete information adapted to your object from the inspector of the state fire service)1. The premises, buildings and structures where events are held must be provided with primary fire extinguishing means, in accordance with the norms and nomenclature.
2. Use only those premises that are provided with at least two emergency exits that meet the requirements of design standards.
3. On the windows of the premises should not be lattices (with swing lattices, they should not be locked), and the windows themselves should be opened freely.
4. The premises should be located not above the second floor, in buildings with flammable ceilings.
5. The Christmas tree should be installed on a stable base and so that its branches do not touch the walls and the ceiling, and the Christmas tree itself does not make it difficult to leave the room.
6. Illumination should be performed in compliance with the rules and technical standards of electrical installations.
7. When using an electric lighting network without a step-down transformer, garlands can be used on the Christmas tree only with the series switching on of bulbs with voltage up to 12 V. The power of the bulbs should not exceed 25 W.
8. It is necessary to organize and ensure that inspectors of the state fire service carry out appropriate fire safety briefings for personnel.
9. Take measures to eliminate violations detected by inspectors of the state fire service.
10. When carrying out activities, it is necessary to organize a duty on the stage, in the hall and utility rooms of instructed persons responsible for fire safety and members of voluntary fire formations who are ready to perform their duties.
11. If a malfunction is detected in the illumination (heating of wires, flashing lights, sparks, etc.), it should be de-energized immediately.
12. In the absence of electric lighting in the room, events at the tree should be held only during daylight hours.
It is prohibited:
- carrying out activities for the lattices on the windows or locked hinged lattices;
- use the shutters on the windows to darken the premises;
- close the doors of emergency exits to locks and other difficult-to-open valves;
- on the eve and during the events to carry out fire, paint and other fire hazardous and explosive works;
- to decorate the Christmas tree with celluloid toys, as well as gauze and cotton, not impregnated with flame retardants;
- use arc spotlights;
- arrange in the room fireworks and other light fire hazard effects;
- use candles and crackers;
- block the escape route;
- reduce the width of the aisles between the rows and install additional chairs, chairs, etc in the aisles;
- Completely extinguish the light indoors during performances or performances;
- fill the premises with people in excess of the established rate;
- Store petrol, kerosene and other flammable liquids in the building and premises;
- to store property, inventory and other objects, substances and materials under the stage or stage, as well as in the basements located under the premises;
- to use objects of interior design, scenery and stage decoration, production of combustible synthetic materials, artificial fabrics and fibers (foam, foam rubber, polyvinyl, etc.).
When the tree is on fire:
- disconnect the garlands from the mains;
- Cover the Christmas tree with a fireball and activate fire extinguishers;
- immediately report a fire to the rescue service by calling “01” (dial “112” via cellular communication);
- at the same time organize the evacuation of people according to the previously developed evacuation plan in case of fire.
It should be noted that most of the fires occur in the residential sector. This is the most unregulated area in terms of state fire control.
The sharp increase in fires during mass festivals can partly be explained by the psychological mood of people. Citizens, trying to remove the stress accumulated during everyday work, significantly reduce their vigilance during the holidays.
In order for the New Year's meeting not to be clouded by such a misfortune as a fire, it is also necessary to observe the rules of fire safety when using pyrotechnic products.
What you need to pay attention when buying firecrackers, fireworks, Bengal lights?
First of all, you need to see whether the products are certified, be sure to familiarize yourself with the rules of operation of pyrotechnics. Do not forget to pay attention to the period of its storage and sale: if the goods are overdue, then in no case should you use them. Packaging must be intact, not torn. When you start pyrotechnics it is strictly forbidden to smoke. Do not use pyrotechnics near parked cars. In a radius of 50 meters there should be no fire hazardous objects. Viewers should be at a distance of 15–20 meters from the fireworks pads, always on the windward side, so that the wind does not blow smoke and pieces that are not burnt down. It is prohibited to start the product from hands.
The use of open fire is not recommended where there is a combustible substance. Bengal fire is the same open fire. The temperature of the rod reaches 2 thousand degrees. And therefore it should be used away from combustible materials. It must be remembered that any kind of pyrotechnics is a dangerous tool that can cause serious harm to human health.
The sale of pyrotechnic products is allowed at retail sites that meet the fire safety requirements of regulatory documents approved in the manner prescribed by law. In order to suppress the facts of illegal trade in pyrotechnics, interdepartmental commissions conduct raids on the places of storage and sale of pyrotechnic products. Particular attention is paid to quality checks, availability of certificates, rules for storage and compliance of the premises in which the sale is made.
So, now employees of the state fire control in all CSTO member states, together with employees of the internal affairs bodies, conduct targeted raids on places of unauthorized sale of pyrotechnic products.
It is also a matter of concern that some citizens do not observe the fire safety rules when operating furnace heating. As practice shows, most often a fire or carbon monoxide poisoning occurs due to the so-called “human factor”, i.e. from ignorance, inattention, negligence.
Therefore, it would not be superfluous to remind once again the rules of fire safety when using furnace heating:
- Only specialists should be involved in the repair and laying of stoves;
- any furnace must have an independent foundation;
- the stove must not adjoin the wooden structures of the wall of the house, between them there must be an air gap (retreat);
- the stove and chimney at the joints with wooden attic or interfloor ceilings should have a thickening of the brickwork (cutting);
- in places where combustible and difficult-to-combustible structures of buildings (walls, partitions, ceilings, beams) adjoin furnaces and chimneys, it is necessary to provide for cutting from non-combustible materials;
- on the wooden floor in front of the firebox it is necessary to nail a metal sheet, a pre-heating sheet, with dimensions of at least 50 by 70 cm;
- Before the start of the heating season, stoves and chimneys must be cleaned of soot, repaired, whitened and repaired cracks;
- before the beginning of the heating season, the stove, as well as the wall smoke ducts within the room, and especially the chimneys in the attic, must be whitened with lime or clay mortar, so that on a white background you can timely notice the cracks blackened by the smoke passing through them and close them;
- no combustible and flammable liquids (gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, etc.) can be used to ignite furnaces;
- under no circumstances should the furnace be fired with wood that does not fit into the firebox. On logs, the fire can go outside and spread to the nearest objects, floor and walls;
- It is extremely dangerous to leave burning stoves unattended;
- It is extremely dangerous to leave burning stoves in the care of young children;
- in order not to allow the furnace to be re-heated, it is recommended to heat it 2 to 3 times a day and not more than an hour and a half;
- 3 hours before bedtime, the furnace should be stopped;
- do not dry on the stove, over the stove, things and raw wood;
- do not store firewood and coal on a metal pre-heating sheet;
- make sure that the furniture, curtains are not less than half a meter from the array of the stove being heated;
- To avoid the formation of cracks in the masonry, it is necessary to periodically clean the chimney from the soot accumulating in it.
I would also like to draw attention to the fact that in the overwhelming majority of cases, the spread of burning over large areas is facilitated by an untimely report of a fire. Therefore, in the event of a fire, you must immediately report to the fire service, and then take measures to eliminate the fire and evacuate people.
The implementation of these simple rules will allow you to save your life and health, to save loved ones.